Cytomegalovirus Infection: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment


Cytomegalovirus infection is a disease that causes one of the herpes viruses. Cytomegalovirus infection can affect almost any organ of the human body. When a virus enters the tissue cells, they grow very much, almost to a gigantic size.

Infection with this virus can cause various changes, the degree of which depends on the state of the human immune system. Therefore, the disease in some cases can occur with little or no symptoms, or with a small mononucleosis-like syndrome.

Causes of cytomegalovirus infection

It should be noted that this virus is spread everywhere. Infection occurs with close contact with a person who is sick, or a carrier of the virus. In the external environment, cytomegalovirus infection is released with various biological fluids of the human body, for example, with saliva, faeces, urine, milk, vaginal secretions and so on.

Ways of transmission of infection can be as follows:

  • Sexual.
  • Air-dropping.
  • Nutritional.
  • From mother to child during pregnancy.
  • Through breast milk.
  • During a blood transfusion.
  • When organ transplantation.

If a person has contracted a cytomegalovirus infection, he remains a carrier of the virus all his life.

Symptoms of cytomegalovirus infection

There are several variants of the course of the disease:

Cytomegalovirus infection in patients with a good immune system is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • Mononucleopathic syndrome.
  • Fever.
  • Muscle weakness.
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes.
  • Typically, after a few weeks the body itself copes with the disease, since antibodies are produced in the required amount.

The virus in patients with low immunity, suffering from HIV, hemoblastoses and so on, is manifested by such symptoms:

  • Generalization of the disease in individual organs.
  • Lesion of the liver.
  • Defeat of the kidneys.
  • Defeat of the retina.
  • Defeat of the pancreas.

Cytomegalovirus infection, like an innate disease, occurs with the following symptoms:

  • Intrauterine infection of the fetus with a virus until 12 weeks.
  • Miscarriage is possible.
  • Birth of a premature baby.
  • Enlarged liver.
  • Hypertrophy of the kidneys, spleen.
  • Pneumonia.
  • Delay in psychomotor development.
  • Visual impairment.
  • Deafness.
  • Anomalies of tooth formation.

Treatment of cytomegalovirus infection

If the patient has normal immunity, this infection does not need treatment. In situations where a patient becomes infected with a virus against a background of low immunity, the doctor can prescribe the following treatment:

Antiviral drugs such as ganciclovir, focsarnet and others.

Anticytomegalovirus immunoglobulin.

In generalized forms of the disease, treatment takes place in a hospital.

Doctor’s recommendations

To date, there are no special preventive measures to avoid infection with cytomegalovirus infection. The main recommendation is compliance with the rules of personal hygiene and prevention of lowering immunity.


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